A Brief History of Time


'A Brief History of Time' is a scientific work created by English physicist Stephen Hawking, first published in 1988.

The book consists of 12 chapters, all of which cover the most advanced knowledge of the nature of the universe, including: our universe images, space and time, the expanding universe, the principle of uncertainty, black holes, the origin and destiny of the universe, and more. It introduced the knowledge of distant galaxies, black holes, particles, and anti-matter, and elaborated on the origins of space and time in the universe, as well as relativism and other ancient propositions.

In this book, Hawking explores the unresolved conflicts in existing cosmological theory and points out the problems of the unification of quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and general theory of relativity. The book is positioned to allow those who have cosmology interest to understand his theory and the mathematical principles therein.

Since its first edition in 1988, the book has been translated into 40 languages, with a cumulative sales volume of 25 million copies, making it a best-selling scientific work worldwide.

In this book, Hawking leads readers to explore exotic areas of outer space, introducing in-depth explanations of distant galaxies, black holes, quarks, "flavored" particles and "spin" particles, anti-matter, and "time arrows". The kind of universe, space and time, and the theory of relativity and other age-old problem made an exposition. This was a preliminary understanding for the reader to expllore the secret special theory of relativity and time, such as the origin of the universe cosmology.

The main contents of "A Brief History of Time" can be summarized as follows:

1. The Starting Point of Time - the singularity of the Big Bang. The universe is constantly expanding and it should initially shrink to a point. This moment is called the moment of the Big Bang. The density of the universe at this point is infinity. This is the mathematical singularity.

2. The End of Time - Black Holes. Stars will continue to contract due to gravitational forces, creating a "black hole." The surface of the black hole is very gravitational and time will stop there.

3. How did God Start the Universe? - The origin and destiny of the universe. One is the origin of the universe called the turbulent boundary condition, which is explained by the principle of ergonomics. The other explanation is called the “rising-up model.” It believes that the universe began to swell with acceleration during the first moment, which is much less than 1 second. The radius of the universe has increased by 100 trillion trillion times.

4. The Unity of Physics - the ultimate theory. Humans are seeking to establish a complete, coordinated unified theory that applies to every event in the universe. In this theory, there is no need to select specific constants to match the facts.


Stephen Hawking (1942–2018), the founder of the British theoretical physicist, the black hole theory, and the “Big Bang” theory, was a professor at the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at the University of Cambridge, UK.

Born in Oxford, England, Hawking was determined to pursue physics and astronomy. After completing a physics degree at Oxford University, he moved to the University of Cambridge to study for cosmology. During this period, he suffered from severe muscular dystrophy and was confined for his remaining years to a wheelchair. However, he continued to immerse himself in research. He successively proposed the theory of black hole evaporation and quantum cosmology, shocked the entire natural science community and was promoted as the most outstanding theoretical physicist after Einstein. In 1974, Hawking was elected as the youngest member of the Royal Society.